Sex Ratio At Birth Deteriorated Most In Gujarat: NITI Aayog

Sex ratio at birth dips in 17 of 21 large states, Gujarat records 53 points fall 

Between 2012-14 and 2013-15, the sex ratio at birth fell by 53 points in Gujarat, finds the NITI Aayog health index report.
Gender Inequality

Never mind the much-mythologised “Gujarat model” of development — the state has seen the sharpest decline in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in the country, according to the NITI Aayog’s health index report “Healthy States, Progressive India ”.

The report not only ranks 21 large states on the overall health performance, but also records the state-wise performance of the states on individual health indicators.

The sex ratio at birth — or the number of girls born for every 1000 boys during a specific year — was recorded for the period between 2012-14 (base year) and 2013-15 (reference year).

The SRB “is an important indicator and reflects the extent to which there is reduction in the number of girl children born by sex-selective abortions,” as the report says.

Gujarat topped the ‘most deteriorated’ category — states that had the most alarming decrease in the SRB. In Gujarat, the sex ratio at birth fell from 907 to 854, a fall of 53 points.

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This was followed by Haryana, where the SRB fell from 866 to 831, a fall of 35 points. Rajasthan came in third with a fall of 32 points, from 893 to 861. Next was Uttarakhand, where the SRB fell from 871 to 844, a fall of 27 points.

In fact, 17 out of the 21 states recorded saw a dip in the sex ratio at birth — painting a grim picture of gender justice the country.

Only three states saw an improvement — with Punjab having the most improved sex ratio at birth, from 870 to 889, an improvement of 19 points.

Uttar Pradesh saw an increase of 10 points, from 869 to 879, while Bihar saw an improvement of 9 points, from 907 to 916. In Jammu & Kashmir, the SRB remained stagnant at 899.

Kerala continues to have the highest SRB, even though it saw a fall of 7 points, from 974 to 967, followed by Chhattisgarh that saw a decline of 12 points from 973 to 961.

“There is a clear need for States to effectively implement the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 and take appropriate measures to promote the value of the girl child,” the report notes further.

Gujarat’s performance for one, however, should not be surprising.

A 2014 report of India’s Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) for 2009-2014 showed what a mess the Gujarat government had made of implementing the PCPNDT Act.

The state also has the sixth worst child sex ratio for the 0-6 age group, with only 883 girls for every 1000 boys, as against an average of 927 for the country, according to the 2011 Census.

“The NITI Aayog report is more evidence that the so-called ‘Gujarat Model of development’ has led to an increase in inequity; in this case, gender inequity,” said Dr Amit Sengupta of the Jan Swasthya Abhiyan to Newsclick. 

The report also shows that economic prosperity does not necessarily translate into social progressiveness, as evident from the fact that states like Punjab and Haryana, despite having a higher per capita income, have a worse sex ratio than Bihar, for example.

Sengupta agrees, “The results prove once again that social backwardness and poverty are not directly related. Gender justice does not come automatically with economic prosperity.”


India – 21 million parents did not want daughters – first national data

The number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons.

by Shalini Nair | New Delhi | Updated: January 30, 2018 5:35 pm

sex ratio, unwanted girls, srlc, sex ratio of last child, male child preferance, daughters, sex selection, female feoticide, indian expressThe number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons. (AP Photo/Representational)

The Economic Survey presents the first ever estimate of the number of ‘unwanted’ girls in India — girls whose parents wanted a boy but had a girl instead — at 21 million. The number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons.

The Survey points out that the huge number of ‘unwanted girls’ (in the 0-25 age group in the population currently) is a direct outcome of the ‘son meta preference’ where parents do not stop having children after having a daughter.

The idea is based on a bunch of papers published in 2017 by development economist Seema Jayachandran of Northwestern University. While the ‘son meta preference’ does not lead to sex-selective abortion, the Survey 21 million is the number of girls parents did not want: first such national data sums up Jayachandran’s paper to state that it is “detrimental to female children because it may lead to fewer resources devoted to them”.

Read | Thrust areas: Economic convergence, gender inequality, climate change

The biologically determined natural sex ratio at birth is 1.05 boy for every girl. The Survey points out that in India, the sex ratio of the last child is skewed towards male all throughout — for first-born, it is 1.82, 1.55 for second born, 1.65 for third child and so on.

sex ratio, unwanted girls, srlc, sex ratio of last child, male child preferance, daughters, sex selection, female feoticide, indian express


The report compares India’s heavily-skewed-in-favour-of-boys SRLC to that of Indonesia, where the sex ratio at birth is close to the biological ideal, irrespective of whether the last child is a boy or a girl.

The estimate on the notionally “unwanted girls” goes beyond the Amartya Sen framework of “missing women” (owing to sex selective abortion or girl children who die owing to deliberate neglect). Using Sen’s methodology of sex ratio difference, as devised in 1990, the Survey pegs the number of “missing women” as of 2014 at 63 million, an increase from the 37 million as per Sen’s estimate.

The sex ratio of last birth (females per hundred births) has merely changed from 39.5 per cent to 39 per cent between 2005-06 and 2015-16. It is among two of the 17 gender indicators used in the Survey that fails to show any decadal improvement with an increase in wealth — the other being the effect on women’s employment.


Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, the proportion of women who took up paid work has gone down from 36 per cent to 24 per cent, making India a glaring outlier in this respect. One of the main reasons for this continues to be the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work that falls on women, including looking after elders and children.

The Survey points out that following the implementation of Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act, 1994, which outlawed sex selection, India has seen a relatively stable sex ratio at birth (SRB). The SRLC, as an indicator, points to the continued societal preferences for a male child.

The Survey looks at both SRB and SRLC to state that in Meghalaya, both indicators are close to the ideal benchmark. Likewise, Kerala does not seem to practise sex selective abortions as their SRB is close to the ideal benchmark but the son preference is evident in a skewed SRLC, while Punjab and Haryana, two of the richest states, have a highly skewed SRB and SRLC.

Using data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the Survey states that over the last 10-15 years, India’s performance has improved on 14 out of 17 indicators of women’s agency, attitudes, and outcomes.

21 million is the number of girls parents did not want: first such national data

Abortion: It’s every woman’s right to choose

According to the latest estimates published in the December issue of The Lancet, in 2015, a staggering 15.6 million abortions occurred in India. Of these 15.6 million abortions, 73% were sought outside health facilities. While unsafe abortions in the country have reduced significantly, about eight lakh women still resort to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy.

Police officers drive their bicycles past a mural art by Brazilian artist Carlos Bobi in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Wednesday, January 3, 2018. According to Bobi, the mural represents a special moment of his ex-wife's pregnancy. As in many countries, abortion is a subject of taboo in Brazil
Police officers drive their bicycles past a mural art by Brazilian artist Carlos Bobi in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Wednesday, January 3, 2018. According to Bobi, the mural represents a special moment of his ex-wife’s pregnancy. As in many countries, abortion is a subject of taboo in Brazil(AP)

Last year, in what is considered a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court ruled that individual privacy is a “guaranteed fundamental right”. The nine-judge bench ruled that the right to privacy is comprised in the right to life and liberty guaranteed in Article 21 of the Constitution. This judgment will have significant implications for the protection of citizens’ personal freedom against intrusions by the State. While the furore about privacy and its breach began with the linking of Aadhaar numbers with various programmes, the judgment addressed several other issues that the bench believed came under the ambit of privacy. Recognising a woman’s prerogative to make decisions about her health and body, the bench ruled that “there is no doubt that a woman’s right to make reproductive choices is also a dimension of ‘personal liberty’ as guaranteed under Article 21. It is important to recognise that reproductive choices can be exercised to procreate as well as to abstain from procreating.” The judgment further states that “a woman’s freedom of choice whether to bear a child or abort her pregnancy are areas which fall in the realm of privacy.”

An extremely progressive and far-reaching judgment, the Supreme Court’s ruling is commendable given the realities on the ground where women are often denied the right to make decisions about their reproductive health. Abortion – a key reproductive choice – is not a right in India. A woman cannot walk into a health facility and demand an abortion with no questions asked. In fact, abortion is provided to her solely at the discretion of the medical provider under certain conditions defined by the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, which include substantial risk to the woman’s life or to her physical or mental health, substantial risk to the life of the foetus, pregnancies resulting from contraceptive failure in case of married women, and pregnancies resulting from rape.

Moreover, if a woman wants to terminate her pregnancy in the first trimester, the law requires that she get the consent of one medical practitioner. For terminating a pregnancy second trimester onwards, she needs the consent of two medical practitioners. This is particularly difficult for a woman in remote locations where it can often be challenging to find even one medical practitioner.

Additionally, women in India still experience provider bias, especially if they are unmarried and seek an abortion. Contrary to the provisions of the MTP Act, many providers also continue to ask for the husband’s consent before performing an abortion, thus undermining a woman’s choice to make that decision herself.

According to the latest estimates published in the December issue of The Lancet, in 2015, a staggering 15.6 million abortions occurred in India. Of these 15.6 million abortions, 73% were sought outside health facilities. While unsafe abortions in the country have reduced significantly, about eight lakh women still resort to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy.

In light of the judgment on privacy, a multi-pronged approach needs to be adopted to ensure that no woman resorts to unsafe means and methods to terminate a pregnancy because she is unable to access safe abortion services. At the policy level, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, must be amended to allow women to receive abortion on request, which, in turn, could increase access to safe abortion care.

This should simultaneously be supported by efforts to build awareness and educate women and the community on their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), including their right to access safe abortion care. More importantly, we must sensitise our healthcare providers and implementers of the law to recognise a woman’s right to reproductive choice, privacy and dignity and to provide services free of bias and judgment.

While the right to privacy is not absolute and is subject to reasonable restrictions, it is nonetheless a fundamental right, not a statutory or a common law right. The State should take steps to ensure that a woman’s right to reproductive choices is mainstreamed and embedded in the public health agenda. They must urgently reassess and amend the laws that impact sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in India, especially the MTP Act.

If a woman so chooses to, she should be able to access abortion on request at any point within the legal gestation limit.

It must be ensured that SRH services and policies, including those for abortion, are designed in a manner that takes into account a woman’s reproductive choice, protects her privacy and dignity and enables her to lead a full and productive life.

Soli Sorabjee, Former Attorney General of India


Bombay HC allows woman to abort 27-week foetus with abnormalities

India’s Medical Termination of the Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971, permits pregnancies to be terminated up to 20 weeks, but courts make exceptions keeping in mind woman’s physical health.

Kanchan Chaudhari
Hindustan Times, Mumbai
The Bombay High Court ruling, by a division bench of Justice RM Borde and Justice Rajesh Ketkar, was not made on exceptional grounds but on a very liberal interpretation of the law.
The Bombay High Court ruling, by a division bench of Justice RM Borde and Justice Rajesh Ketkar, was not made on exceptional grounds but on a very liberal interpretation of the law.(HT File Photo)

In a liberal and progressive interpretation of the Medical termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, the Bombay High Court on Tuesday allowed a woman to terminate her 27-week pregnancy, taking into consideration the physical and mental trauma she would suffer if the child was born with severe abnormalities.

The foetus she is carrying has severe abnormalities.

India’s Medical Termination of the Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971, permits pregnancies to be terminated up to 20 weeks, but courts make exceptions beyond 20 weeks after a board of doctors confirms continuing the pregnancy is a risk to the woman’s physical health. In this case, the board that examined the woman said there was no risk to her life.

That put the high court bench in a bind. It could have allowed a termination under two conditions: under Section 5 of the law to save the woman’s life (irrespective of the pregnancy duration) or under Section 3(2), if the pregnancy is not more than 20 weeks old, if it poses grave injury to the woman’s physical or mental health, if there are chances of the baby being handicapped, or if the pregnancy is a result of rape or contraceptive failure.

To be sure, there have been instances of courts permitting termination of pregnancies that are older, but these have been exceptions.

The Bombay High Court ruling, by a division bench of Justice RM Borde and Justice Rajesh Ketkar, was not made on exceptional grounds but on a very liberal interpretation of the law. The bench said Sections 3 and 5 were required to be construed harmoniously with the object of the enactment.

“If conditions laid down in sub-Section 2(b) of Section 3 of the (MTP) Act are fulfilled, it would provide good ground for exercise of Section 5 of the Act,” said the bench.

Specifically, the bench took note that Section 5 of the law uses words specifically excluding the limitation set out by Section 3 and that, therefore, the emergency clause in Section 5 could be invoked irrespective of the length of the pregnancy.

Besides, it said, the construction would also be in tune with the proposed amendment to the MTP Act, which seeks to extend by four weeks the limit of 20 weeks set out in Section 3.

The MTP (Amendment) Bill 2014 proposes to relax the upper limit of legal abortion from 20 to 24 weeks and make access easier by widening the provider base by training auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs), nurses, and AYUSH practitioners to terminate early-stage non-surgical pregnancies; introduce a confidentiality cause; and remove the need for a doctor’s second opinion for second-trimester pregnancies.

SC allows two rape victims to abort, orders preservation of fetus for DNA test to help nail accused



  • The bench directed preservation of the terminated fetus for DNA sampling during the investigation
  • SC medical expense of process of termination of pregnancy would be borne by the respective states

Representative photoRepresentative photo

NEW DELHI: The Supreme Court on Thursday permitted two minor girls to terminate their pregnancies caused by rapes and added a new dimension by ordering preservation of the foetuses to help nail the accused during the sexual assault case trial.

One is a 13-year-old from Delhi and another a 17-year-old from Bengaluru and both are rape survivors. A bench of Chief Justice Dipak Misra and Justices Amitava Roy and A M Khanwilkar ordered termination of their pregnancies, which were beyond the permissible period of 20 weeks under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971.

The Delhi girl will undergo the MTP in AIIMS on Friday and the Bengaluru girl will terminate her pregnancy in Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI). The court directed AIIMS and the Karnataka government to bear the expense of the medical procedures required for termination of the pregnancies and food and medicines required by the girls.

Counsel in the two cases — Nikhil Nayyar and Divyesh Pratap Singh — requested the court that since both the pregnancies were caused by sexual assault, it would be helpful if the aborted foetuses were preserved for DNA test to assist the prosecution in nailing the guilt of the accused.

SC passed the orders after medical boards in AIIMS and BMCRI recommendation.

Malformed baby born to Mumbai woman denied abortion by SC dies

Representative image Representative image
MUMBAI: A 28-year-old Diva resident who was denied permission by the Supreme Court in March to abort her severely malformed foetus, watched her baby die, said family friends. The news of the child’s death comes just as a 13-year-old rape survivor’s plea for abortion beyond the permissible 20-week time limit was filed in the SC on Wednesday. Last month, the Supreme Court had turned down a plea for a 10-year-old rape survivor to terminate her 32-week pregnancy.

“The child passed away around a fortnight back,” they said. The child was born on July 1 at civic-run KEM Hospital, Parel, which gave a medical report that formed the basis of the court’s refusal. The woman is said to be in anguish and away in her native village at the moment. Her distraught father said he no longer wanted to speak on the issue.

The Diva woman’s plea was turned down on a technicality that the child would be born alive. In her petition, she mentioned the plight of her severely handicapped and bed-ridden brother as one of the reasons for seeking abortion. She told TOI in March she had helped her parents, who live in Dahisar, take care of her brother. She used to carry her brother to and from the bathroom. He was so sensitive to sounds that Diwali would be a no-fun period for the entire family; even sounds of crackers bursting would trigger seizures in him. She even told the KEM medical team that she didn’t want a disabled child as she saw the sacrifices and troubles her family has been through.

Gynaecologist Dr Nikhil Datar, who helped the woman move the SC, confirmed the baby’s death. Underlining the need to extend the deadline for medical termination beyond the present 20 weeks, Dr Datar said, “An abnormality, whether detected early or late, carries the same prognosis. Just because an arbitrary or unscientific deadline has been crossed doesn’t mean the outcome will change. There is no point in further traumatising a woman, the baby as well as an entire family by prolonging life.”

The medical fraternity has been demanding an increase in the abortion limit to 24 weeks. Dr. Bipin Pandit, a gynaecologist, said, “Many foetal abnormalities can be diagnosed only after 20 weeks. Certain deformities can be diagnosed earlier, but by the time the family comes to terms with the issue, they near the 20-week deadline. The only way to resolve such situations is to increase the abortion limit to 24 weeks.” Dr. Pandit added that the drugs to induce abortion in the second trimester have considerably improved and have become safe and more accessible.

Dr. Pandit said women who are forced to deliver malformed babies and undergo the trauma of seeing them die, are vulnerable to postpartum depression.

He said, “It is very simple. They are expecting a bundle of joy and suddenly someone tells them that there is a problem. But after diagnosing the problem, the solution has been denied to the woman. Is it fair?”

Dr Subha Sri B, chairperson of Chennai-based NGO CommonHealth, pointed out when a woman decides to terminate a pregnancy, it is not a frivolous decision. “It is not as if a woman wakes up one morning and decides to terminate. She may be forced by circumstances, but she is ultimately the one who will face consequences of the birth,” she said. Moreover, the state doesn’t provide any support for women and their special needs children-a point the Diva woman, who hails from a humble background, had raised.

TOI and The Hindu

Beti Bachao: The Declining Sex Ratios Of Indian Cities

Tarun Amarnath

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Contrary to popular perception that the deeply rooted prejudice against girls, reflected in the country’s sex ratio, is mostly present in rural areas, some of the largest cities in India–including Delhi and Mumbai–had imbalanced sex ratios in 2011, according to an analysis of government data.


In 2011, for every 1,000 boys aged 0-6 years, there were 852 girls in Mumbai, 832 girls in Delhi, and 942 girls in Hyderabad, according to data put together by Kanya.Life, an initiative founded by Tarun Amarnath, a United States-based high school student, that analyses large and openly accessible data sets on gender provided by the Government of India’s Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner.


Data from 2011 is the latest publicly available on sex ratios of Indian cities.


The worst child sex ratio was in Mahesana (762 girls per 1,000 boys) in Gujarat, followed by Agra (772) in Uttar Pradesh (UP), Modinagar (778) in UP, and English Bazaar (781) in West bengal (WB), data show. Bally, in WB had more girls (1,185) per 1,000 boys , as did Nagaon (1,043) in Assam, and Tambaram (1,019) in Tamil Nadu.


A normal gender ratio at birth is between 102-106 boys per 100 girls, which would be equivalent to 943-980 girls per 1,000 boys, according to a report by organizations working on gender issues. This ratio is not 1,000 boys for every 1,000 girls because it is nature’s way of balancing a higher risk of death for boys as they grow older, according to the World Health Organization.


The child sex ratio, which is based on the number of boys and girls between 0 and 6 years of age registered at the time of the census, shows whether sex selection is prevalent in the country. A sex ratio less than the normal range of 943-980 girls per 1,000 boys, suggests discrimination against girls, and the presence of female infanticide, which is the killing of girls after birth, or of female foeticide, sex-selective abortion of the foetus.


An adverse child sex ratio is also reflected in the distorted gender makeup of the entire population. In 2031, India will have 936 females per 1,000 males, lower than the sex ratio in 1951 of 946 females per 1,000 males, the World Bank predicts.



For this story, Kanya.Life used data for India, each of its states, and its 500 most populous cities from 2011, the latest available city-level data. The largest municipality at the time of the census, Greater Mumbai, had a population of 12 million, while the smallest, Nagda in Madhya Pradesh, had a population of 100,000.


The average child sex ratio in the largest 500 Indian cities–the total population (221 million) of which is nearly equal to that of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain combined–was 902. Ratios in Indian cities were as bad or worse than those found in rural India in 2011, which has an average child sex ratio of about 923 females per 1,000 males.


India’s sex ratio at birth–the number of girls born for every 1,000 boys–since 2011 has slightly improved, from 902 girls per 1,000 boys in 2011 to 903 girls in 2015, according to data from the World Bank. But this ratio is still the fifth worst in the world, better than only Liechtenstein (794), China (867), Azerbaijan (879), and Armenia (883). India’s sex ratio is worse than Pakistan (920), South Korea (952), Nigeria (944), and Nepal (939), according to the World Bank.

Source: World Bank


How analysing city-level data could help


Analysis, when taken down to the level of cities and towns, could help identify trends on gender discrimination which could aid the government and non-governmental organisations combat female foeticide and infanticide.


Further, research at a local level could also be used to make communities aware about the problem, and empower them to act.


Governments and organisations working on these issues could also learn from cities that have a healthy gender ratio such as Puducherry (Puducherry), Aizawl (Mizoram), Kolar (Karnataka), Kumbakonam (Tamil Nadu), and Nagercoil (Tamil Nadu).


Why India’s fight against foeticide, infanticide has failed


India’s national child gender ratio has fallen over the past three decades from 945 in 1991 to 918 per 1,000 boys in 2011, according to census data. The states of Haryana, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, and Maharashtra have a ratio lower than 900 girls per 1,000, which could imperil the future gender balance and demographics of the country.


In the mid-1960s, new technology that allowed for prenatal gender determination, and thus sex-selective abortion, such as the ultrasound, was brought into India, reported the Times of India in October 2011.


The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s made ultrasound technology more easily available, according to a 2012 discussion paper by researchers at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Germany. “The number of ultrasound machines manufactured in India increased rapidly between 1988 and 2003 with an especially marked increase after 1994,” found the study, which said that the “initial introduction of ultrasound led to sex-selection,” but the rate of sex-selective abortion did not increase more with the rapid expansion of the technology in the 2000s.


The Indian government has implemented regulations to prevent female foeticide arising because of these new technologies. One of the main laws, the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PC & PNDT) of 1994 prohibits sex selection, before or after conception, and regulates diagnostic techniques to prevent misuse of sex determination techniques.


But these laws are often implemented poorly. For instance, in Maharashtra officials failed to complete 55% of inspections of sonography centers in 2014-2015, the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) found, as IndiaSpend reported in June 2015. In Gujarat, the shortfall in inspections of sonography center was 73%.


Further, In violation of Supreme Court directions to prosecute cases filed under the PC & PNDT Act within six months, cases in Maharashtra and Gujarat continued from one to 12 years.


The Uttar Pradesh government has left unspent about half the funds it was allocated to curb female foeticide, according to the CAG, as IndiaSpend reported in October 2016. None of the diagnostic centres followed all mandatory rules of preserving image records or backups taken during the ultrasonography of pregnant women, the CAG audit found. In 68% of cases, women did not even hold the necessary referral slips from their doctors.


Disempowered women, culture of dowry, smaller family size, might lead to sex selection


Despite significant economic and scientific growth over the past few decades, female infanticide and foeticide remain major issues in India, data show.


Reasons for female infanticide include anti-female bias, as women are often seen as subservient to men, who often employ positions of power, according to information from the United Nations Population Fund.


In addition, parents believe they will be better taken care of in their old age by men, as men are perceived as the principal wage earners of the family. Parents of girls are usually expected to pay a dowry, which could be a massive expense, avoided by raising males.


Coupled with son preference, smaller family sizes might also lead to greater gender selection, as IndiaSpend reported in December 2016. “Sex ratio at birth becomes skewed in favour of boys when fertility rates are low “by choice or coercion”, according to a 2006 article published by the National Academy of Sciences, USA. “Female births must be prevented to allow for the desired number of sons within the family size norm”.


India’s sex ratio at birth declined even as per capita income increased nearly 10 times over the last 65 years, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of government data. This could be because rising income, which results in increased literacy, makes it easier for families to access sex-selective procedures such as amniocentesis, or sex determination by using the amniotic fluid, as IndiaSpend reported in June 2015.


Though education could help reduce son-preference in India, women need to be empowered more broadly, according to research, as reported by IndiaSpend in May 2016. Education, travel, the freedom to grow and make decisions, and the opportunity to use education just like men are the key ingredients for changing gender perceptions, not education or economic development alone or jointly, as IndiaSpend reported in December 2016.


(Amarnath is a high school student and the founder of Kanya.Life. He has a deep interest in applying data science to address large problems in society.)

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