AIDWA Condemns AYUSH University VC’s Remark on Sex Selection


All India Democratic Women’s Association had demanded that a case should be registered against him and he should be removed by the government from his post.

Image for representational purpose only

CHANDIGARH: Vice-Chancellor of the AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) University in Kurukshetra Dr Baldev Kumar Dhiman has triggered a controversy by claiming that Ayurveda can help in gender selection before conception. On this, All India Democratic Women’s Association had demanded that a case should be registered against him and he should be removed by the government from his post.

Speaking at a function to mark the birth anniversary of Narad Muni, Dhiman said that ayurvedic medicine could give desired results. “ The ancient scripture clearly mentions that it is possible to select gender before pregnancy. But, one has to follow the instructions for two months for desired results,” he claimed.

Dhiman said that traditional alternative technique includes medication, dietary and physical regulations and meditation at the pre-conception stage.

Reacting sharply on the comments made by Dhiman, AIDWA has condemned the statement made by Dhiman, claiming that ayurveda can help in the selection of gender before conception. Not only does this display a completely unscientific mindset, it violates the PNDT Act which makes sex selection illegal, whether before or after conception. According to the Act it is also illegal to advertise or promote any method leading to sex selection.

It is reported that Shri Dhiman while speaking at a function made the astounding claim that ayurvedic medicine provides alternate techniques that can give desired results in choosing the sex of the baby even before conception. This apparently includes dietary and physical regulations, and the observance of appropriate instructions as laid down in the ancient scriptures. There is no doubt that the VC himself upholds pre conception techniques to obtain the “desired” results, referring thereby to the conception of a son. The deeply embedded RSS ideology that idealizes the male over the female child is blatantly exposed.

The release said that the views of Dhiman cannot be overlooked at a time when the BJP government in Haryana is claiming to have reduced the sex imbalance in the state through the effective implementation of the PcPNDT Act. It called for strict action against Dhiman for his “anti woman mindset and his violation of the law” and said that he must be removed from office immediately.

Janwadi Mahila Samiti’s State Secretary General Savita, President Shakuntala Jakhar, Treasurer Rajkumari Dahiya and Vice President Jagmati Sangwan jointly said that at a time when the BJP Government in Haryana is claiming to have reduced sex imbalance in the state through their effective implementation of the PNDT Act, and other measures, these views expressed by an esteemed vice chancellor cannot be taken lightly.

 

AIDWA demands strict action against Dhiman for his anti woman mind-set and his violation of the law. He must be removed from office immediately and a case should be registered against VC for violation of the PNDT Act, otherwise the movement against it will be launched, they claimed.

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Gender discrimination kills 239,000 girls in India each year, study finds


U.N: Perilous for some girls in India (2012) 03:48

(CNN)An estimated 239,000 girls under the age of five die in India each year due to neglectlinked to gender discrimination, a new study has found.

 

The figure, which amounts to 2.4 million deaths a decade, does not include pre-natal mortality rates.
“Gender-based discrimination towards girls doesn’t simply prevent them from being born, it may also precipitate the death of those who are born,” wrote the study’s co-researcher Christophe Guilmoto in the Lancet medical journal.
“Gender equity is not only about rights to education, employment or political representation. It is also about care, vaccination, and nutrition of girls, and ultimately survival,” added Guilmoto.
The report is the first to examine the number of avoidable deaths among girls under five in India at a district level, showing specific geographic patterns of avoidable female mortality across India’s 640 districts.
Avoidable or excess mortality is defined as the difference between observed and expected mortality rates.
To determine that figure for India, researchers used UN population data from 46 countries to calculate the difference between the expected morality rate for girls aged under five in areas of the world without gender discrimination and the reality inside India.
The researchers found that 29 out of 35 Indian states showed overall excess mortality in girls under five, and all Indian states and territories, apart from two, contained at least one district with excess mortality.
The average level of excess mortality in girls aged 0-4 in India between 2000-2005 was 18.5 per 1,000 live births, or close to a quarter of a million deaths a year.
“Around 22% of the overall mortality burden of females under five is therefore due to gender bias,” the study’s authors, the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) a scientific institute based in Austria,said in a statement released Monday.
IIASA researchers found that the problem was most pronounced in northern India, where the four largest states, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, accounted for two thirds of the total excess deaths of infant girls under five.
The study showed that the areas worse affected were typically in rural regions, with low levels of education, high population densities and high birth rates.
The study’s co-author Nandita Saikia, from the IIASA, said that the findings reinforced the need to address directly the issue of gender discrimination in addition to “encouraging social and economic development for its benefits on Indian women.”
The report suggests many of the deaths are at least partly due to unwanted female child bearing in a society that has a preference for sons.
“The sustained fertility decline currently observed in north India is likely to lead to a reduction in postnatal discrimination. Unless son preference diminishes, lower fertility, however, might bring about a rise in gender-biased sex selection,” said Saikia.
A preference for boys and the availability of sex-selective operations, although illegal in India, means there’s a gender gap of as many as 63 million girls.
As a result, India has one of the most skewed sex ratios in the world. For every 107 males born in India, there are 100 females. According to the World Health Organization the natural sex ratio at birth is 105 males for every 100 females.

Sex Ratio At Birth Deteriorated Most In Gujarat: NITI Aayog


Sex ratio at birth dips in 17 of 21 large states, Gujarat records 53 points fall 

Between 2012-14 and 2013-15, the sex ratio at birth fell by 53 points in Gujarat, finds the NITI Aayog health index report.
Gender Inequality

Never mind the much-mythologised “Gujarat model” of development — the state has seen the sharpest decline in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in the country, according to the NITI Aayog’s health index report “Healthy States, Progressive India ”.

The report not only ranks 21 large states on the overall health performance, but also records the state-wise performance of the states on individual health indicators.

The sex ratio at birth — or the number of girls born for every 1000 boys during a specific year — was recorded for the period between 2012-14 (base year) and 2013-15 (reference year).

The SRB “is an important indicator and reflects the extent to which there is reduction in the number of girl children born by sex-selective abortions,” as the report says.

Gujarat topped the ‘most deteriorated’ category — states that had the most alarming decrease in the SRB. In Gujarat, the sex ratio at birth fell from 907 to 854, a fall of 53 points.

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This was followed by Haryana, where the SRB fell from 866 to 831, a fall of 35 points. Rajasthan came in third with a fall of 32 points, from 893 to 861. Next was Uttarakhand, where the SRB fell from 871 to 844, a fall of 27 points.

In fact, 17 out of the 21 states recorded saw a dip in the sex ratio at birth — painting a grim picture of gender justice the country.

Only three states saw an improvement — with Punjab having the most improved sex ratio at birth, from 870 to 889, an improvement of 19 points.

Uttar Pradesh saw an increase of 10 points, from 869 to 879, while Bihar saw an improvement of 9 points, from 907 to 916. In Jammu & Kashmir, the SRB remained stagnant at 899.

Kerala continues to have the highest SRB, even though it saw a fall of 7 points, from 974 to 967, followed by Chhattisgarh that saw a decline of 12 points from 973 to 961.

“There is a clear need for States to effectively implement the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act, 1994 and take appropriate measures to promote the value of the girl child,” the report notes further.

Gujarat’s performance for one, however, should not be surprising.

A 2014 report of India’s Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) for 2009-2014 showed what a mess the Gujarat government had made of implementing the PCPNDT Act.

The state also has the sixth worst child sex ratio for the 0-6 age group, with only 883 girls for every 1000 boys, as against an average of 927 for the country, according to the 2011 Census.

“The NITI Aayog report is more evidence that the so-called ‘Gujarat Model of development’ has led to an increase in inequity; in this case, gender inequity,” said Dr Amit Sengupta of the Jan Swasthya Abhiyan to Newsclick. 

The report also shows that economic prosperity does not necessarily translate into social progressiveness, as evident from the fact that states like Punjab and Haryana, despite having a higher per capita income, have a worse sex ratio than Bihar, for example.

Sengupta agrees, “The results prove once again that social backwardness and poverty are not directly related. Gender justice does not come automatically with economic prosperity.”

India – 21 million parents did not want daughters – first national data


The number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons.

by Shalini Nair | New Delhi | Updated: January 30, 2018 5:35 pm

sex ratio, unwanted girls, srlc, sex ratio of last child, male child preferance, daughters, sex selection, female feoticide, indian expressThe number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons. (AP Photo/Representational)

The Economic Survey presents the first ever estimate of the number of ‘unwanted’ girls in India — girls whose parents wanted a boy but had a girl instead — at 21 million. The number has been arrived at by looking at the sex ratio of the last child (SRLC) which is heavily male-skewed, indicating that parents keep having children until they get the desired number of sons.

The Survey points out that the huge number of ‘unwanted girls’ (in the 0-25 age group in the population currently) is a direct outcome of the ‘son meta preference’ where parents do not stop having children after having a daughter.

The idea is based on a bunch of papers published in 2017 by development economist Seema Jayachandran of Northwestern University. While the ‘son meta preference’ does not lead to sex-selective abortion, the Survey 21 million is the number of girls parents did not want: first such national data sums up Jayachandran’s paper to state that it is “detrimental to female children because it may lead to fewer resources devoted to them”.

Read | Thrust areas: Economic convergence, gender inequality, climate change

The biologically determined natural sex ratio at birth is 1.05 boy for every girl. The Survey points out that in India, the sex ratio of the last child is skewed towards male all throughout — for first-born, it is 1.82, 1.55 for second born, 1.65 for third child and so on.

sex ratio, unwanted girls, srlc, sex ratio of last child, male child preferance, daughters, sex selection, female feoticide, indian express

 

The report compares India’s heavily-skewed-in-favour-of-boys SRLC to that of Indonesia, where the sex ratio at birth is close to the biological ideal, irrespective of whether the last child is a boy or a girl.

The estimate on the notionally “unwanted girls” goes beyond the Amartya Sen framework of “missing women” (owing to sex selective abortion or girl children who die owing to deliberate neglect). Using Sen’s methodology of sex ratio difference, as devised in 1990, the Survey pegs the number of “missing women” as of 2014 at 63 million, an increase from the 37 million as per Sen’s estimate.

The sex ratio of last birth (females per hundred births) has merely changed from 39.5 per cent to 39 per cent between 2005-06 and 2015-16. It is among two of the 17 gender indicators used in the Survey that fails to show any decadal improvement with an increase in wealth — the other being the effect on women’s employment.

 

Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, the proportion of women who took up paid work has gone down from 36 per cent to 24 per cent, making India a glaring outlier in this respect. One of the main reasons for this continues to be the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work that falls on women, including looking after elders and children.

The Survey points out that following the implementation of Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act, 1994, which outlawed sex selection, India has seen a relatively stable sex ratio at birth (SRB). The SRLC, as an indicator, points to the continued societal preferences for a male child.

The Survey looks at both SRB and SRLC to state that in Meghalaya, both indicators are close to the ideal benchmark. Likewise, Kerala does not seem to practise sex selective abortions as their SRB is close to the ideal benchmark but the son preference is evident in a skewed SRLC, while Punjab and Haryana, two of the richest states, have a highly skewed SRB and SRLC.

Using data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and National Family Health Survey (NFHS), the Survey states that over the last 10-15 years, India’s performance has improved on 14 out of 17 indicators of women’s agency, attitudes, and outcomes.

21 million is the number of girls parents did not want: first such national data

Beti Bachao: The Declining Sex Ratios Of Indian Cities


Tarun Amarnath

sex ratio_620

 

Contrary to popular perception that the deeply rooted prejudice against girls, reflected in the country’s sex ratio, is mostly present in rural areas, some of the largest cities in India–including Delhi and Mumbai–had imbalanced sex ratios in 2011, according to an analysis of government data.

 

In 2011, for every 1,000 boys aged 0-6 years, there were 852 girls in Mumbai, 832 girls in Delhi, and 942 girls in Hyderabad, according to data put together by Kanya.Life, an initiative founded by Tarun Amarnath, a United States-based high school student, that analyses large and openly accessible data sets on gender provided by the Government of India’s Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner.

 

Data from 2011 is the latest publicly available on sex ratios of Indian cities.

 

The worst child sex ratio was in Mahesana (762 girls per 1,000 boys) in Gujarat, followed by Agra (772) in Uttar Pradesh (UP), Modinagar (778) in UP, and English Bazaar (781) in West bengal (WB), data show. Bally, in WB had more girls (1,185) per 1,000 boys , as did Nagaon (1,043) in Assam, and Tambaram (1,019) in Tamil Nadu.

 

A normal gender ratio at birth is between 102-106 boys per 100 girls, which would be equivalent to 943-980 girls per 1,000 boys, according to a report by organizations working on gender issues. This ratio is not 1,000 boys for every 1,000 girls because it is nature’s way of balancing a higher risk of death for boys as they grow older, according to the World Health Organization.

 

The child sex ratio, which is based on the number of boys and girls between 0 and 6 years of age registered at the time of the census, shows whether sex selection is prevalent in the country. A sex ratio less than the normal range of 943-980 girls per 1,000 boys, suggests discrimination against girls, and the presence of female infanticide, which is the killing of girls after birth, or of female foeticide, sex-selective abortion of the foetus.

 

An adverse child sex ratio is also reflected in the distorted gender makeup of the entire population. In 2031, India will have 936 females per 1,000 males, lower than the sex ratio in 1951 of 946 females per 1,000 males, the World Bank predicts.

 

 

For this story, Kanya.Life used data for India, each of its states, and its 500 most populous cities from 2011, the latest available city-level data. The largest municipality at the time of the census, Greater Mumbai, had a population of 12 million, while the smallest, Nagda in Madhya Pradesh, had a population of 100,000.

 

The average child sex ratio in the largest 500 Indian cities–the total population (221 million) of which is nearly equal to that of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Spain combined–was 902. Ratios in Indian cities were as bad or worse than those found in rural India in 2011, which has an average child sex ratio of about 923 females per 1,000 males.

 

India’s sex ratio at birth–the number of girls born for every 1,000 boys–since 2011 has slightly improved, from 902 girls per 1,000 boys in 2011 to 903 girls in 2015, according to data from the World Bank. But this ratio is still the fifth worst in the world, better than only Liechtenstein (794), China (867), Azerbaijan (879), and Armenia (883). India’s sex ratio is worse than Pakistan (920), South Korea (952), Nigeria (944), and Nepal (939), according to the World Bank.

 

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1W0pj7hjXwXg_0PQRJT1wzbGkPZ8byQ1TOpklJcUX2Jo/pubchart?oid=309934495&format=interactive

Source: World Bank

 

How analysing city-level data could help

 

Analysis, when taken down to the level of cities and towns, could help identify trends on gender discrimination which could aid the government and non-governmental organisations combat female foeticide and infanticide.

 

Further, research at a local level could also be used to make communities aware about the problem, and empower them to act.

 

Governments and organisations working on these issues could also learn from cities that have a healthy gender ratio such as Puducherry (Puducherry), Aizawl (Mizoram), Kolar (Karnataka), Kumbakonam (Tamil Nadu), and Nagercoil (Tamil Nadu).

 

Why India’s fight against foeticide, infanticide has failed

 

India’s national child gender ratio has fallen over the past three decades from 945 in 1991 to 918 per 1,000 boys in 2011, according to census data. The states of Haryana, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, and Maharashtra have a ratio lower than 900 girls per 1,000, which could imperil the future gender balance and demographics of the country.

 

In the mid-1960s, new technology that allowed for prenatal gender determination, and thus sex-selective abortion, such as the ultrasound, was brought into India, reported the Times of India in October 2011.

 

The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s made ultrasound technology more easily available, according to a 2012 discussion paper by researchers at the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in Germany. “The number of ultrasound machines manufactured in India increased rapidly between 1988 and 2003 with an especially marked increase after 1994,” found the study, which said that the “initial introduction of ultrasound led to sex-selection,” but the rate of sex-selective abortion did not increase more with the rapid expansion of the technology in the 2000s.

 

The Indian government has implemented regulations to prevent female foeticide arising because of these new technologies. One of the main laws, the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PC & PNDT) of 1994 prohibits sex selection, before or after conception, and regulates diagnostic techniques to prevent misuse of sex determination techniques.

 

But these laws are often implemented poorly. For instance, in Maharashtra officials failed to complete 55% of inspections of sonography centers in 2014-2015, the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) found, as IndiaSpend reported in June 2015. In Gujarat, the shortfall in inspections of sonography center was 73%.

 

Further, In violation of Supreme Court directions to prosecute cases filed under the PC & PNDT Act within six months, cases in Maharashtra and Gujarat continued from one to 12 years.

 

The Uttar Pradesh government has left unspent about half the funds it was allocated to curb female foeticide, according to the CAG, as IndiaSpend reported in October 2016. None of the diagnostic centres followed all mandatory rules of preserving image records or backups taken during the ultrasonography of pregnant women, the CAG audit found. In 68% of cases, women did not even hold the necessary referral slips from their doctors.

 

Disempowered women, culture of dowry, smaller family size, might lead to sex selection

 

Despite significant economic and scientific growth over the past few decades, female infanticide and foeticide remain major issues in India, data show.

 

Reasons for female infanticide include anti-female bias, as women are often seen as subservient to men, who often employ positions of power, according to information from the United Nations Population Fund.

 

In addition, parents believe they will be better taken care of in their old age by men, as men are perceived as the principal wage earners of the family. Parents of girls are usually expected to pay a dowry, which could be a massive expense, avoided by raising males.

 

Coupled with son preference, smaller family sizes might also lead to greater gender selection, as IndiaSpend reported in December 2016. “Sex ratio at birth becomes skewed in favour of boys when fertility rates are low “by choice or coercion”, according to a 2006 article published by the National Academy of Sciences, USA. “Female births must be prevented to allow for the desired number of sons within the family size norm”.

 

India’s sex ratio at birth declined even as per capita income increased nearly 10 times over the last 65 years, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of government data. This could be because rising income, which results in increased literacy, makes it easier for families to access sex-selective procedures such as amniocentesis, or sex determination by using the amniotic fluid, as IndiaSpend reported in June 2015.

 

Though education could help reduce son-preference in India, women need to be empowered more broadly, according to research, as reported by IndiaSpend in May 2016. Education, travel, the freedom to grow and make decisions, and the opportunity to use education just like men are the key ingredients for changing gender perceptions, not education or economic development alone or jointly, as IndiaSpend reported in December 2016.

 

(Amarnath is a high school student and the founder of Kanya.Life. He has a deep interest in applying data science to address large problems in society.)

Rajasthan- At 861 girls, sex ratio slides alarmingly


Image used for representation
JAIPUR: Despite several initiatives taken by the state government to increase the sex ratio, the number of girls born in the state against 1,000 boys has gone down to 861 during 2013-15 in the state. This was constant 893 from 2010-12 to 2012-14.

For the past few years, the sex ratio at birth was a constant 893. This has slipped to 861. Despite several initiatives taken by the state government to bring down the ratio at birth, it has fallen drastically between 2013 and 2015.

This is a fall by a whopping 32 points, as per the latest sample registration system (SRS) statistical report 2015 released by the Centre.

The three consecutive SRS statistical reports 2012, 2013 and 2014, had shown that the sex ratio was constant at 893, but the latest SRS 2015 report has shocked the state as it shows that it has slipped noticeably.

“The sex ratio at birth for the country for the period 2013-15 (3-year average) has been estimated as 900. At the national level, it is 903 in rural areas and 890 in urban areas. Among the bigger states/UTs, the sex ratio at birth varies from 967 in Kerala to 831 in Haryana. In rural areas, the highest and the lowest sex ratio at birth are in the states of Chhattisgarh (9870 and Haryana (836), respectively. The sex ratio in urban areas varies from 954 in Madhya Pradesh to 821 in Haryana,” the report says.

Health authorities claimed that the situation was much better in terms of sex ratio at birth now. “At present, the sex ratio at birth is above 940 girls per 1,000 boys born in the state. We collect figures of births from across the state through our online pregnancy and child tracking system (PCTS). We register each and every birth (100% births) on PCTS,” Navin Jain, state head (mission director), National Health Mission (NHM), said.

He said that according to registries in PCTS, the sex ratio at birth in the state was 939 in 2016.

Over the past few years, health authorities have stepped up efforts to curb female foeticide in the state. There are 2,760 sonography centers in the state. Officials said that they have conducted more than 11,000 inspections at sonography centres till date. In 2014, they have conducted 837 inspections. In 2015, this increased to 1,430 and, in 2016, the officials conducted 2,468 inspections. This year, till May, they have conducted 473 inspections. During inspections, they suspended registrations of 196 centres for flouting provisions of the PCPNDT Act. They also cancelled 472 registrations of sonography centres.

Officials said that 652 cases were undergoing trail in different courts in the state for flouting the PCPNDT Act.

Sex selection in Indian community persists despite years spent in Canada


Study shows Punjabi mothers who already had 2 daughters, had 240 boys for every 100 girls

By Laura Glowacki, CBC News

Indian-born mothers in Ontario are more than two-times more likely to have boys than girls as their third child if they have already had two daughters, even after spending more than 10 years in Canada, a new study has found.

Indian-born mothers in Ontario are more than two-times more likely to have boys than girls as their third child if they have already had two daughters, even after spending more than 10 years in Canada, a new study has found. (The Associated Press)

Contrary to what researchers expected, the length of time Indian immigrants have lived in Canada has no effect whatsoever on the practice of sex selection in favour of boys.

The lead author of an upcoming study, Marcelo Urquia, said his team’s findings show Indian mothers are more than twice as likely to have a male third child, if a couple has already had two daughters.

“Families prefer to have boys rather than girls,” said Urquia, an assistant professor at the University of Manitoba. “Or, if they already have daughters, they want to have at least one male in the family.”

While Canadian-born women give birth to about 105 boys for every 100 girls, Urquia and his team from the University of Toronto and St. Michael’s Hospital, showed Punjabi-speaking mothers in Ontario, at their third birth, had 240 boys for every 100 girls.

“We expected that with longer exposure to Canada’s environment of greater gender equality, immigrants from India would progressively shift toward valuing daughters and sons more equally,” Urquia said. But it seems that’s not so.

Instead of finding a decrease, they actually found a slight increase in preference for boys.

For Punjabi-speaking Ontario women new to Canada, Urquia found they give birth to 213 boys to every 100 girls if they have already had two daughters, whereas mothers who have been in Canada for 10 years or more, including those raised in Canada, gave birth to 270 boys to every 100 girls.

Among Indian immigrants, the researchers found sex selection most common in the Punjabi-speaking community but it was also seen in women whose mother tongue was Hindi.

No choice for some moms: director

The new findings are based on 46,834 live births to Indian-born mothers who gave birth in Ontario hospitals between 1993 and 2014 and will be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada.

Sex selection with preferences for boys happens across the country, Urquia said.

“But we don’t really understand why this is still happening in Canada.”

The data were especially puzzling to Urquia and his colleagues because other health trends do change after immigrants live in Canada for years. For example, Indian women who abstained from drinking in India tend to begin consuming alcohol after living in Canada, said Urquia. Also, Indian immigrants tend to become more sedentary when they move to Canada and obesity rates, not surprisingly, rise.

“We don’t have a proper explanation,” he said of the preference for boys. “We really don’t know why this is happening.”

Kripa Sekhar, executive director of the South Asian Women’s Centre in Toronto, said findings by Urquia and his colleagues confirmed what her organization has seen and heard from women for years.

Her organization was one of a handful consulted as part of the new research into sex selection.

“I’m not saying this happens across the board but definitely among more traditional, South Asian families there appears to be a desire to have a male child,” Sekhar said.

Some of the potential reasons mothers abort female daughters can be traced to both cultural and economic reasons, she said.

Traditionally, sons take care of elderly parents and their families also receive dowries in marriages, so the birth of a boy is a joyous occasion, Sekhar said, especially for traditional families.

“I think it comes down from traditions of patriarchy,” she said.​ “It’s very sad … Because she’s under pressure to have that male child, she actually in many ways has no choice.”

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/sex-selection-indian-community-1.4083853

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