#India – Child Sex Ratio worsens- Fewer children born each year


RUKMINI S

Couples are choosing to restrict size of their families: data

The number of children born every year is slowing rapidly in India, but the slowdown is faster for girl babies than for boy babies, new data from the 2011 Census shows.

While India’s poor sex ratio for children under the age of six is well-known, data released by the office of the Registrar-General of India on Monday gives an indication of the situation at the time of birth. Just under 2.1 crore children were born in 2010, the year before the latest Census was conducted. In the year 2000 in comparison, 1.98 crore children were born. However, the growth in the number of male children born was higher at 5.44 per cent, while the growth in the number of girls born was far lower at 4.69 per cent. The sex ratio at birth as a result was slightly worse in 2011 than it was in 2001.

The numbers also clearly indicate that couples are choosing to restrict the size of their families; nearly half of the children born in 2000 were the third, fourth, fifth and so on in the family. In 2011, just a third of children born in the preceding year were the family’s third, fourth, fifth or so on children. In fact, the absolute number of first and second-borns only increased between 2000 and 2010, while the number of later-born children declined.

The two processes — declining size of families and preference for male children — are going on simultaneously, Dr. P. Arokiasamy, noted demographer and fertility trends expert and Professor at the Mumbai-based International Institute for Population Sciences, told The Hindu. “Fertility is declining faster than expected in India, and when fertility declines, we see an increase in the intensity of preference for male children,” he said. This can be through sex-selective abortion, or the ‘stopping principle’, where families stop having children as soon as they’ve had a boy, Dr. Arokiasamy explained.

And here’s the second chart: 

In a given year, a child born to a woman under the age of 24 is most likely to be her first child, and one born to a woman aged 25-40 her second child. In 2001 in contrast, a child born to a woman in the age group 30-34 was most likely to be her third child, and one born to a woman aged 35 to 39 was most likely to be her fourth child, the Census numbers show.

The data also shows that just 2 per cent of women under the age of 18 are now married in India. Statistics on marriage released showed that 72 lakh people under the age of 18 were married as of 2011, 70 per cent of them girls.

http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fewer-children-born-each-year-child-sex-ratio-worsens/article6959890.ece

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#India – Sex ratio slides as mom’s age goes up


NEW DELHI: Child sex selection seems to go up as the age of the mother does, just released data from Census 2011 shows. The sex ratio among children born to young mothers in the 15-19 age group was the highest after which there was a steady decline till the 45-49 age group. This pattern held true across the country with no exception seen in any state, whether in rural or urban areas.

The latest census data on births that happened in the year preceding the survey, showed that the ratio of the number of girls to 1,000 boys, born to mothers in the 15-19 age group was 938, way higher than the sex ratio of 899 for all children born during the year.

Almost 21 million or about 2.08 crore children were born in the year before the census survey. The data showed that the sex ratio declined as the age of the mothers increased, falling from a sex ratio of 927 and 897 in the 20-24 and the 25-29 age groups respectively to just 856 and 824 in the 40-44 and 45-49 age group.

Since natural causes cannot explain this pattern, it appears that this could be because in the younger age group, where many of the children would be first-borns, there would be greater tolerance for girl children. But with advancing birth order and age of the mother, the pressure to produce a son would increase and hence there were greater chances of families doing away with female babies. Interestingly, even in states with the best sex ratios, this pattern of a steep decline in the ratio with increasing age of the mother held true.

Almost 63% of the children born were to mothers between the ages 20-29, the most productive ages. Children born to mothers beyond 30 years of age accounted for just 30.7%. However, despite children born to mothers in the 20-29 age group having a better sex ratio than children born to older mothers, it affected the overall sex ratio pulling it down significantly.

The sex ratio jumped to 883 in the 50+ age group. But the nearly two lakh children born to mothers aged 50 years and more constituted barely 1% of the total children born. Children born to mothers less than 15 years of age also had a sex ratio of 881, similar to those born to mothers aged 50+. However, only about 59,000 children were born to mothers less than 15 years and accounted for a meagre 0.3%. Both these groups, therefore, did not significantly affect the overall numbers

#India – Child sex ratio worsening faster among STs: census report


Author(s): Jitendra
Date:Nov 4, 2013, Down to Earth

Data also shows higher marginationalisation of the country’s Scheduled Tribes

Life on the margins (Photo by M Suchitra)Life on the margins (Photo by M Suchitra)

The latest data released by the Census of India shows that the child sex ratio (number of girls per 1,000 boys) among Scheduled Tribes (STs) in the country has declined faster than in other categories of the population between 2001 and 2011. But the number of girls born per 1,000 boys is still higher in the ST category than in the general population. The data also shows higher marginalisation of India’s Scheduled Tribes; the rate at which people are giving up cultivation is also higher in this category. But more number of Scheduled Tribe women participate in the work force than women in any other category of the population.

The census report data, released on October 28, shows a declining trend in child sex ratio across all categories. The national average has dipped to 919 in 2011 from 927 in 2001. The decline in child sex ratio of STs is higher—it has declined from 973 to 957, but the child gender ratio among STs is still better than the national average. The child sex ratio of STs is the best in Chhattisgarh at 993 and Odisha at 980.

The population growth rate of STs is more than the average population growth of the country, reveals the Primary Census Abstract SC & ST report of Census of India 2011. The growth rate of general population of country is 17.7 per cent whereas STs are growing at 23.7 per cent. Even in urban areas, the growth rate of ST population is more—the growth rate of STs is 49.7 per cent whereas the general population grew by 31.7 per cent.

The data shows another trend. The proportion of child population (0-6 years) of STs has been decreasing. The proportion of child population is overall 13.6 of total population. But the schedule caste child population and tribal child population is decreasing at faster rate in comparison to general child population.

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Overall sex ratio better

The census data shows overall improvement in sex ratio (adults and children combined) in all categories, including that of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes between 2001 and 2011. This improvement is more visible in urban areas. The sex ratio among STs is better than that of all categories. The ST sex ratio has improved to 990 from 978 per 1,000 males, whereas the national average has increased to 943 from 933. The census data shows ST sex ratio has increased to 980 from 944 in urban areas. On the other hand, sex ratio of general population in urban areas improved to 929 from 900. The national sex ratio of rural population is improving slowly in comparison to rural population of STs.

Odisha and Jharkhand, two of India’s poorest states with sizeable tribal population, are the best performing states when it comes to improved sex ratio of STs when compared to states like Rajasthan (948), Uttar Pradesh (952), Jammu and Kashmir (924) and Bihar (958), which also have tribal people. Goa tops the list when it comes to sex ratio of tribal population with 1,046 females per 1,000 males; it is followed by Kerala (1,035), Arunachal Pardesh (1,032), Odisha (1,029) and Chhattisgarh (1,020).

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There is minuscule increase in work participation rate (WPR) of Scheduled Tribes in the country. The rate of WPR is high in urban areas. Work participation rate of SCs and STs in rural areas is declining but increasing urban areas, the census report states.

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Work participation of ST women is the highest in the country and the participation of men is even better. Work participation rate of ST women is 43.5, whereas national average (for general population) is 25.5. Though the overall work participation rate decreased from 25.6 to 25.5, it is increased in urban areas.

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Fewer work days

The census data clearly reflects increasing marginalisation of workers. There is declining trend in percentage of “main workers” (those who are engaged in any economically productive activity for 183 days/six months or more during the year) and increasing trend of “marginal workers” (those who work less than 183 days/six months a year). But the rate of decline of “main workers” belonging to ST category is faster in comparison to the national average. This trend is there in rural areas as well.

STs are the most marginalised group in the country. The growth rate of marginal workers almost doubled in comparison to the national rate. Among STs, rate of marginalisation is greater in rural areas in comparison to urban areas.

As per data, the number as well as the percentage of cultivators is declining. The percentage of decline again is more among STs but they still constitute the highest percentage of cultivators. In rural areas, the decline in number of cultivators is more than 10 per cent whereas the national average is about seven per cent.

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As per data, there is increasing trend of people becoming agricultural labourers. Though Scheduled Castes, who by tradition constitute highest percentage of agricultural labourers seems to remain stagnant, but they still contitute highest percentage among all categories, followed by STs. The percentage increase of agricultural labourers is higher for ST population. Their rate increased by around eight per cent, whereas national average of growth in agricultural labour was four per cent. In rural areas, SC sconstitute highest number of agricultural labourers. But the rate of increase is highest among STs.

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The number of household industry (HHI) workers is increasing but their percentage is decreasing, says census data. The decline is across all sections. HHI is a non-registered industry, run by only family members.

The number as well as percentage of “other workers” has been increasing across all sections. More SCs are joining this category than any other section of the population.

 

#India- (Un)wanted women #Vaw


Ashok Kumar, The Hindu

Sex Selection  is a major factor resulting in trafficking of women from across the country to Haryana for forced marriages and the situation has only been worsened by widespread unemployment and the low status accorded to women in the State, says the first-ever UN commissioned report on human trafficking in Haryana.

Most of the women brought to Haryana for forced marriages are from Assam and West Bengal and the districts of Karnal, Mewat, Rewari, Kurukshetra, Jind, Yamuna Nagar and Hisar in Haryana are the major destinations for these trafficked women, says the report titled ‘Current Status of Victim Service Providers and Criminal Justice Actors in India on Anti-Human Trafficking’, adding that the process of bridal migration was gaining momentum in the State and the sale and trafficking aspects of it needed immediate attention. In Mewat, there are many women who are being brought from States like Assam, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh and are forced to get married against their will. These girls are popularly known as “Paro”.

According to a 2004 report by non-government organisation Shakti Vahini, 100s of young girls and women are lured and sold into involuntary marriages in North India, says the report on human trafficking. They are bartered at prices that vary depending on their age, beauty and virginity and exploited under conditions that amount to a modern form of slavery. Although trafficking of women and girls has become a lucrative and expanding trade in these regions, it routinely escapes effective administrative and social sanctions and the general response is to deny the existence of any such problem.

A large number of women are also trafficked to Haryana from Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh for domestic work and are forced to work under bonded labour like conditions, according to the report. Gurgaon and Faridabad are the major destinations for the girls and women trafficked to Haryana for domestic work and a large number of them even become victims of sexual exploitation, says the report.The trafficked domestic helps, mostly minor girls, are supplied in Haryana by the placement agencies operating in Delhi and once these children land up in their employer’s house they end up in slavery. In many cases, these children become the victims of sexual exploitation at the hands of either the placement agency owner or the employer themselves. The placement agencies illegally run their business and have good links in the source areas. The agency owners bring girls from the source states with the help of their organised network and employ them as bonded labour.

Most of the victims are trafficked through railway routes and they are transited via Delhi. These women and girls are also sent to the border areas of Rajasthan from Haryana.

According to the report, the Haryana Government has initiated various schemes for the care and protection of trafficked victims and children. However, there is an absence of monitoring mechanism and minimum standards of victim care and protection and it was highlighted when the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights team detected cases of selling of infants and sexual exploitation of girls at a State-supported “Swadhar” Home in Rohtak recently.

Sounding the warning bells, the report says it may take Haryana more than 50 years to reach its natural sex ratio even if the Government ensures that not a single sex determination takes place in the State. The demand for marriageable age girls will be much more intense in the coming years and the demand met by inter-State marriages. The challenge before the State of Haryana as well as regions of Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan is to ensure that the bride demand is not catered to through human trafficking. The governments in these regions should ensure legislations which protect the rights of women and children, says the report.

J&K: Man kills 4-year-old daughter to get government compensation #Vaw #WTFnews


CNN-IBN | Updated Jun 30, 2013

SrinagarIn a shocking incident in Kashmir, a man allegedly choked and slit the throat of his 4-year-old daughter, in order to get government compensation. The accused Altaf Ahmad from Rafiabad has been arrested.

Police are saying his main motive was to claim she was killed by militants and seek compensation from the government. Altaf’s wife is the village sarpanch and he was hoping the police would believe his story considering the recent militant attacks on sarpanches and their families. On the day of the incident, Altaf allegedly sent his wife and son to the doctor and in their absence murdered the young girl.

“We believe that the motive could have been that his wife is the village sarpanch. He might have tried to pass the murder off as a militant act to claim compensation from the government,” DIG north Kashmir JP Singh said.

 

#India – No girl child in 72 hamlets of Madhya Pradesh #Vaw #Sexselection


, TNN | Jun 28, 2013,

BHOPAL: Shivani, 7, a class II student of government primary school in Tinchha village ofIndore, has only one girl in her class, Muskan, to play with-courtesy child sex ratio of just 571 (females) compared to 1,000 (male).

But it is not an isolated village without girls. Going by Census 2011 figures, only 5 or less girls were born in past six years in 1,675 villages in the state!

There are 72 hamlets in the state where there is no girl, but only boys below the age of six years.

Krishna Verma, aanganwadi worker at Tinncha village in Indore, said, “Both Shivani and Muskan have been promoted to class II this year. In class I of village school, there are just three girl students.”

“In all, 28 boys and 16 girls below 6 years of age are registered at the centre,” Verma said.

It was because only 16 girls were borne against 28 boys in the past six years, she added.

Tinncha is a small village in Indore district of the state with a population of 422.

There are at least half a dozen villages in almost all districts of the state as per census 2011 figures.

In Kagnikheda village under Khilchipur tehsil of Rajgarh district-Sapna, 6, and Manisha, 6, are the only girl classmates in standard I of the government primary school.

“The names of Sapna and Manisha were removed from the register of aanganwadi center as they were enrolled in class I of government primary school this year. They are the only girls in 0 to 6 years of age group in our village,” Sajjan Bai, aanganwadi worker at Kagnikheda told TOI.

Kagnikheda with a population of 425 has a child sex ratio (0 to 6 yrs) of just 433 as per Census 2011. There are only 13 girls compared to 30 boys in the same age group.

Same is the story at Sarekha Khurd village, (population 631) in Seoni district, which has a child sex ratio of just 515, Gunjhar village (total population 492) of Gwalior district having child sex ratio of 410, Atrar village

(population 530) of Tikamgarh district which has a child sex ratio of just 456, Pali Sujam village (population 327) having child sex ratio of just 352 and other such villages of the state.

 

Open letter to Shahrukh and Gauri Khan #surrogacy #sexselection


Dated- June 18.2013

Dear Shahrukh and Gauri Khan

Media reports allege that you are having a third child through surrogacy and that you are aware it’s a baby boy. We cannot comment on the authenticity of the news reports.  But in response to these reports, the Indian Radiological and Imaging Association has demanded the Maharashtra State Health Department initiate an inquiry . The BMC officials had visited your house but were not given any information.

FASS is a network with over 50 member including Ngos, and individual activits, lawyers and teachers . Apart from improving the sex ratio, the main thrust of the FASS campaign is to strengthen the overall position of women in our State and to enable women to live with dignity, in a non-discriminatory environment.

We want to inform you that the PCPNDT Act prohibits the use of all technologies for the purpose of sex selection, which would also include the new chromosome separation techniques. There is a blanket ban under sections 3, 4 and 5 of the PCPNDT Act.

Although you have neither denied nor accepted this statement, we would like to remind you that early this year you issued a statement which said:

Being a public figure makes me open to any kind of questioning, adjectives good and bad and or sometimes makes me an object of controversy  as people  use my name and statements to attach any positive or negative sentiment to it. I accept all the above because this is the life I chose and will stand by it. full statement here

We as FASS members demand the truth and want you come out with a public statement regarding the issue. If it is denial, then there  is no issue, but if its true, then  you have completely violated the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act and like any other citizen of India you will be charged under the PCPNDT Act for violation of law and it will take it own legal recourse.

Kamayani Bali Mahabal and Jyoti Mhapsekar

On behalf of Forum Against Sex Selection (FASS)­­­

Fass Secretariat

c/o Stree Mukti Sanghatana

31, Shramik , Royal Crest, 1st Floor,
Lokamanya Tilak Vasahat Road No. 3,
Dadar (East), Mumbai – 400 014,
Maharashtra, India.
Tele-Fax: +91 22 24174381

Email: fassindia2011@gmail.com

 

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