Himachal Pradesh – Panchayat bhawans to display child sex ratio


  • Panchayat bhawans to display gender ratio

Deputy Commissioner Abhishek Jain launches ‘Guddi-Gudda’ scrolls to be put up in all panchayats of the district in Hamirpur on Thursday. Photo: Rajesh Sharma

Our Correspondent

Una, June 11

With a view to reversing the trend of declining child sex ratio in Una district, the administration has decided to put up ‘Guddi-Gudda’ scrolls in all 235 panchayat bhawans. The boards will display the number of female and male infants born during the month in the panchayat, with the cumulative annual figures displayed along with it. 

Deputy Commissioner Abhishek Jain today unveiled the scrolls at a district-level review programme of the Mother and Child Development Department at Bachat Bhawan. He said these scrolls would serve as a deterrent against the declining sex ratio in panchayats showing negative trends. Besides, these would be a source of encouragement to panchayats showing positive trends. 

According to the 2011 Census, Una district had an overall sex ratio of 974 females against 1,000 males. However, the child sex ratio, which indicates the number of girls to boys in the 0 to 6 years age group was 906, pointing towards gender bias and selective termination of pregnancies. 

According to the census, the child sex ratio in different district of the state was 1,013 in Lahul and Spiti, 962 in Kullu, 953 in Kinnaur, 950 in Chamba, 931 in Sirmaur, 922 in Shimla, 913 in Mandi, 899 in Solan, 893 in Bilaspur, 881 in Hamirpur, 873 in Kangra and 870 in Una. Una district also figures among the 100 districts of the country having the lowest sex ratio.

Prompted by the trends, the Union Ministry of Mother and Child Development launched the ‘Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao’ Flagship Mission programme and the Deputy Commissioner, along with health officials, were called in Chandigarh to participate in a mission workshop a few months ago, which was chaired by Maneka Gandhi.The union ministry later sanctioned a project estimated at Rs 36.34 lakh under the Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao programme for Una district to tackle the social issue.

The project includes components like Inter Sectoral Consultation meetings, training and capacity building of stakeholders, innovation and awareness generation activities, besides community mobilization and outreach activities. Una SDM Dhanvir Thakur, Chief Medical Officer GR Kaushal and Programme Officer of the Mother and Child Development Department Ranjit Singh were also present.

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/himachal/community/panchayat-bhawans-to-display-gender-ratio/92568.html

Odisha – Child sex ratio falls below 800 in 90 villages


Child sex ratio falls below 800 in 90 villages of Odisha’s Nayagarh

Odisha Sun Times Bureau
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Nayagarh district in Odisha has always been in the news when it comes to issues of gender bias . But the extent of the rot has been brought home in all its frightening detail by a recent report.

According to this report commissioned by the District Child Protection Unit, the sex ratio in as many as 90 villages of the district has fallen below 800 in the 0-6 age group, a key indicator of the overall male female ratio. What it means is there are less than 800 female children in the 0-6 age group.

More worryingly, the ratio in some of these 90  villages has fallen as low as 600 ! At this rate, Nayagarh could soon be competing with districts in distant Haryana for the tag of the place with the worst sex ratio in the country.

At 855: 1000, the female-male sex ratio is already a major concern, especially because no other district in the state has a ratio of less than 900.

Gender bias against the girl child is disturbing in Odisha’s Nayagarh district which is evident from an official report of the government which speaks of the grave decline in the female sex ratio in the (0-6 year age group).

In Singarpur villag,e the female child ratio is abysmally low and stands at 468 reminding one of the media reports of foetuses floating in a well in Nayagarh town in 2007.

While 14 villages under Nayagarh police station limits are among the villages where the situation is grim, six are under Daspalla police station, 16 under Fatehgarh police limits, three under Gania police limits, nine under Khandapada police limits, two under Nuagaon police limits, eight under Odagaon police limits, 11 under Ranapur police limits and the highest of 22 under Sarankul police limits.

While the female child sex ratio is between an abysmal 630 and 650 in Dindabhuin and Dihagaon villages under Daspalla police limits, the ratio in other four villages under the same police limits is only marginally better at between 710 to 800.

Laxmiprasad under Fatehgarh police limits has a female child sex ratio of 523, Bhagabanpur 531, Dhanchangda 634 and Kalatangi has 686. In the remaining 12 villages under the same police limits, sex ratio is between 720 to 800.

Similarly, the ratio in Bijayanagar is 602, 755 in Ostia and 764 in Kishoreprasad – all under Gania police limits.

Female child ratio is 640 at Natugaon under Itamati police limits in Nayagarh block and 681 in Lathipada under the same police limits. In the other four villages undre the police station, it’s between 700 to 800.

Also under Nayagarh Sadar police limits, the ratio stands between 610 to 700 in Khandugaon, Muthagadia, Balugaon, Deuli and Chandibasti. In the three other villages, it varies between 730 to790.

The situation is attributed to socio-religious bias toward sons and proliferation of ultra sound diagnostic clinics which are illegally engaged in sex determination tests of foetuses and medical termination of pregnancies in the event the foetus is found to be that of a girl child.

District Child Protection Officer Pritikant Panda said there is a need for raising awareness levels among the people and deter

http://odishasuntimes.com/129685/female-sex-ratio-falls-below-800-in-90-villages-of-odishas-nayagarh/

#India – Sex ratio slides as mom’s age goes up


NEW DELHI: Child sex selection seems to go up as the age of the mother does, just released data from Census 2011 shows. The sex ratio among children born to young mothers in the 15-19 age group was the highest after which there was a steady decline till the 45-49 age group. This pattern held true across the country with no exception seen in any state, whether in rural or urban areas.

The latest census data on births that happened in the year preceding the survey, showed that the ratio of the number of girls to 1,000 boys, born to mothers in the 15-19 age group was 938, way higher than the sex ratio of 899 for all children born during the year.

Almost 21 million or about 2.08 crore children were born in the year before the census survey. The data showed that the sex ratio declined as the age of the mothers increased, falling from a sex ratio of 927 and 897 in the 20-24 and the 25-29 age groups respectively to just 856 and 824 in the 40-44 and 45-49 age group.

Since natural causes cannot explain this pattern, it appears that this could be because in the younger age group, where many of the children would be first-borns, there would be greater tolerance for girl children. But with advancing birth order and age of the mother, the pressure to produce a son would increase and hence there were greater chances of families doing away with female babies. Interestingly, even in states with the best sex ratios, this pattern of a steep decline in the ratio with increasing age of the mother held true.

Almost 63% of the children born were to mothers between the ages 20-29, the most productive ages. Children born to mothers beyond 30 years of age accounted for just 30.7%. However, despite children born to mothers in the 20-29 age group having a better sex ratio than children born to older mothers, it affected the overall sex ratio pulling it down significantly.

The sex ratio jumped to 883 in the 50+ age group. But the nearly two lakh children born to mothers aged 50 years and more constituted barely 1% of the total children born. Children born to mothers less than 15 years of age also had a sex ratio of 881, similar to those born to mothers aged 50+. However, only about 59,000 children were born to mothers less than 15 years and accounted for a meagre 0.3%. Both these groups, therefore, did not significantly affect the overall numbers

#India – Child sex ratio worsening faster among STs: census report


Author(s): Jitendra
Date:Nov 4, 2013, Down to Earth

Data also shows higher marginationalisation of the country’s Scheduled Tribes

Life on the margins (Photo by M Suchitra)Life on the margins (Photo by M Suchitra)

The latest data released by the Census of India shows that the child sex ratio (number of girls per 1,000 boys) among Scheduled Tribes (STs) in the country has declined faster than in other categories of the population between 2001 and 2011. But the number of girls born per 1,000 boys is still higher in the ST category than in the general population. The data also shows higher marginalisation of India’s Scheduled Tribes; the rate at which people are giving up cultivation is also higher in this category. But more number of Scheduled Tribe women participate in the work force than women in any other category of the population.

The census report data, released on October 28, shows a declining trend in child sex ratio across all categories. The national average has dipped to 919 in 2011 from 927 in 2001. The decline in child sex ratio of STs is higher—it has declined from 973 to 957, but the child gender ratio among STs is still better than the national average. The child sex ratio of STs is the best in Chhattisgarh at 993 and Odisha at 980.

The population growth rate of STs is more than the average population growth of the country, reveals the Primary Census Abstract SC & ST report of Census of India 2011. The growth rate of general population of country is 17.7 per cent whereas STs are growing at 23.7 per cent. Even in urban areas, the growth rate of ST population is more—the growth rate of STs is 49.7 per cent whereas the general population grew by 31.7 per cent.

The data shows another trend. The proportion of child population (0-6 years) of STs has been decreasing. The proportion of child population is overall 13.6 of total population. But the schedule caste child population and tribal child population is decreasing at faster rate in comparison to general child population.

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Overall sex ratio better

The census data shows overall improvement in sex ratio (adults and children combined) in all categories, including that of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes between 2001 and 2011. This improvement is more visible in urban areas. The sex ratio among STs is better than that of all categories. The ST sex ratio has improved to 990 from 978 per 1,000 males, whereas the national average has increased to 943 from 933. The census data shows ST sex ratio has increased to 980 from 944 in urban areas. On the other hand, sex ratio of general population in urban areas improved to 929 from 900. The national sex ratio of rural population is improving slowly in comparison to rural population of STs.

Odisha and Jharkhand, two of India’s poorest states with sizeable tribal population, are the best performing states when it comes to improved sex ratio of STs when compared to states like Rajasthan (948), Uttar Pradesh (952), Jammu and Kashmir (924) and Bihar (958), which also have tribal people. Goa tops the list when it comes to sex ratio of tribal population with 1,046 females per 1,000 males; it is followed by Kerala (1,035), Arunachal Pardesh (1,032), Odisha (1,029) and Chhattisgarh (1,020).

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There is minuscule increase in work participation rate (WPR) of Scheduled Tribes in the country. The rate of WPR is high in urban areas. Work participation rate of SCs and STs in rural areas is declining but increasing urban areas, the census report states.

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Work participation of ST women is the highest in the country and the participation of men is even better. Work participation rate of ST women is 43.5, whereas national average (for general population) is 25.5. Though the overall work participation rate decreased from 25.6 to 25.5, it is increased in urban areas.

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Fewer work days

The census data clearly reflects increasing marginalisation of workers. There is declining trend in percentage of “main workers” (those who are engaged in any economically productive activity for 183 days/six months or more during the year) and increasing trend of “marginal workers” (those who work less than 183 days/six months a year). But the rate of decline of “main workers” belonging to ST category is faster in comparison to the national average. This trend is there in rural areas as well.

STs are the most marginalised group in the country. The growth rate of marginal workers almost doubled in comparison to the national rate. Among STs, rate of marginalisation is greater in rural areas in comparison to urban areas.

As per data, the number as well as the percentage of cultivators is declining. The percentage of decline again is more among STs but they still constitute the highest percentage of cultivators. In rural areas, the decline in number of cultivators is more than 10 per cent whereas the national average is about seven per cent.

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As per data, there is increasing trend of people becoming agricultural labourers. Though Scheduled Castes, who by tradition constitute highest percentage of agricultural labourers seems to remain stagnant, but they still contitute highest percentage among all categories, followed by STs. The percentage increase of agricultural labourers is higher for ST population. Their rate increased by around eight per cent, whereas national average of growth in agricultural labour was four per cent. In rural areas, SC sconstitute highest number of agricultural labourers. But the rate of increase is highest among STs.

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The number of household industry (HHI) workers is increasing but their percentage is decreasing, says census data. The decline is across all sections. HHI is a non-registered industry, run by only family members.

The number as well as percentage of “other workers” has been increasing across all sections. More SCs are joining this category than any other section of the population.

 

#India – No girl child in 72 hamlets of Madhya Pradesh #Vaw #Sexselection


, TNN | Jun 28, 2013,

BHOPAL: Shivani, 7, a class II student of government primary school in Tinchha village ofIndore, has only one girl in her class, Muskan, to play with-courtesy child sex ratio of just 571 (females) compared to 1,000 (male).

But it is not an isolated village without girls. Going by Census 2011 figures, only 5 or less girls were born in past six years in 1,675 villages in the state!

There are 72 hamlets in the state where there is no girl, but only boys below the age of six years.

Krishna Verma, aanganwadi worker at Tinncha village in Indore, said, “Both Shivani and Muskan have been promoted to class II this year. In class I of village school, there are just three girl students.”

“In all, 28 boys and 16 girls below 6 years of age are registered at the centre,” Verma said.

It was because only 16 girls were borne against 28 boys in the past six years, she added.

Tinncha is a small village in Indore district of the state with a population of 422.

There are at least half a dozen villages in almost all districts of the state as per census 2011 figures.

In Kagnikheda village under Khilchipur tehsil of Rajgarh district-Sapna, 6, and Manisha, 6, are the only girl classmates in standard I of the government primary school.

“The names of Sapna and Manisha were removed from the register of aanganwadi center as they were enrolled in class I of government primary school this year. They are the only girls in 0 to 6 years of age group in our village,” Sajjan Bai, aanganwadi worker at Kagnikheda told TOI.

Kagnikheda with a population of 425 has a child sex ratio (0 to 6 yrs) of just 433 as per Census 2011. There are only 13 girls compared to 30 boys in the same age group.

Same is the story at Sarekha Khurd village, (population 631) in Seoni district, which has a child sex ratio of just 515, Gunjhar village (total population 492) of Gwalior district having child sex ratio of 410, Atrar village

(population 530) of Tikamgarh district which has a child sex ratio of just 456, Pali Sujam village (population 327) having child sex ratio of just 352 and other such villages of the state.

 

Maharashtra – Govt, private hospitals told to display sex ratio at birth #Goodnews


, TNN | Jun 3, 2013,

PUNE: All government and private hospitals are now required to keep a display board of the sex ratio at birth, based on the number of deliveries of boys and girls taking place on their premises.The state government, in a letter issued on May 31, has directed civil surgeons and the civic health department to ensure that all hospitals falling in their respective jurisdictions follow the latest diktat in letter and spirit.

“A decision was taken in the state advisory board’s meeting held in Mumbai on May 3. The letter directing civil surgeons and civic medical officer of health (MoH) to ensure implementation in their jurisdictions was issued on May 31. All hospitals, government and private, will now have to display such a board,” a state health official said.

in which civil surgeons and civic health officials have been categorically asked to ensure that all hospitals in their administrative powers follow the latest rule in letter and spirit.

“Hospitals should be informed that they will have to calculate sex ratio at birth based on the deliveries taking place in their clinical establishment and display the same on the board,” the letter reads.

TOI has a copy of the letter that instructs all hospitals to follow the rule. “The officials entrusted to ensure the implementation need to furnish information about how many hospitals have put such a board along with photos of such display boards installed at the hospitals to the State Family Welfare Bureau periodically,” the letter states.

Child sex ratio is calculated as the number of girls per 1,000 boys in the 0-6 years’ age group. As per global trends, the normal child sex ratio should be above 950. When the ratio is calculated at birth – the number of girls born per 1,000 boys – it is called sex ratio at birth. The sex ratio at birth is a better indicator of pre-natal sex selection. The ideal sex ratio at birth is 951 girls per 1,000 boys.

“We will ensure that all hospitals follow the latest government directive. Our team of officials overseeing the effective implementation of the PCPNDT Act within the municipal limits of Pune city will implement the rule,” S T Pardeshi, medical officer of health (MoH), Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), said.

“There are three indicators for measuring the sex ratio – overall sex ratio, child sex ratio and sex ratio at birth. Sex ratio at birth is a sensitive indicator, independent of sex specific mortality and migration. The objective of the latest diktat is to assess the scenario of sex ratio at birth at different hospitals,” said another top state health official from State Health Systems Resource Centre (SHSRC), a technical and research wing of department of health and family welfare. The move will help find hospitals constantly showing low birth ratio of girls born per 1,000 boys and facilitate corrective measures.

Other directives under the PCPDNT Act for hospitals and doctors.

* Use of pre-natal (before delivery) diagnostic techniques are allowed only on medical grounds for detecting abnormalities and anomalies and not for sex determination Section 6 a,b,c

* No person conducting pre-natal diagnostic procedures shall communicate to the pregnant woman concerned or her relatives the sex of the foetus by words, signs or in any other manner Section 5

* All clinics conducting ultrasound must be registered and certificate displayed.-No of machines, qualification of person conducting sonography and period of registration Section 19(4)

* All clinics should display prominently ‘disclosure of sex of the foetus is prohibited under the law’ in English as well as in local language Rule 17 (1)

* All clinics should have available copy of Act Rule 17 (2)

* Doctors or clinics advertising sex determination test in any form are liable for punishment Section 22

* Every offence under this Act is cognizable, non-bailable and non-compoundable Section 27

* Implementing authority under the Act is Appropriate Authority Section 17

* Under the Act, appropriate authority has power to search, seize and seal clinics Section 30

* Act has made it mandatory to maintain records of every scan done Section 29 and Rule 9 Section 5 and Rule 10 (1A)

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Maharashtra- Study shows sex selection practices in doctors’ families #WTFnews


, TNN | May 28, 2013, 06.42 AM IST

NAGPUR: A study by a Nagpur-based institute has found the sex ratio skewed in doctors’ families, too. The child sex ratio in these families was 907 girls per 1,000 boys, lower than the national average of 914. It was indicative of a deep-rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratio in India, the study stated.

The skewed ratio in the doctors’ families was strongly indicative of underlying sex-selection practices even though the ratios offer only circumstantial evidence, rather than proof, the study stated. The study was published recently in the American Journal ‘Demography’ and titled ‘Skewed Sex Ratios in India: Physician Heal Thyself’.

The researchers investigated the sex ratio in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children where either one or both parents were doctors who had studied at the Government Medical College and Hospital in Nagpur between 1980 and 1985. The medical college is a large tertiary care teaching hospital in Vidarbha region, admitting 200 students for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of SurgeryMBBS) .

Other than being more skewed than the national average, the researchers observed that the conditional sex ratios consistently decreased with increasing number of previous female births. Third, the birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth.

“Our investigation has revealed startling concerns about the potential sex selection practices among doctors of Vidarbha region. We are aware of the limitations of this study as the sample size is not very big and hence may not faithfully represent the entire physician community in India. But it definitely warrants a closer look. It will also be interesting to see whether such practices pervade others in the medical profession, such as nurses and paramedical workers,” said principal investigator Archana Patel.

Patel also works as a professor and head of the department of paediatrics. She is a director of epidemiology unit at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, Nagpur. The others who conducted the study with Patel are Neetu Badhoniya, Manju Mamtani and Hemant Kulkarni.

“The study was conducted for three reasons. The medical profession enjoys high esteem in India, and physicians are regarded as role models in society. Second, physicians have a crucial role in the implementation of the Pre Conception and Pre-Natal and Diagnostic Techniques (prevention of sex selection) Act to prevent the misuse of ultrasound and other techniques for prenatal sex determination, which has been implicated for selective abortion of girls. Third, little is known whether this preference for boys also exists among the families of Indian physicians. Hence, we investigated the pattern of sex ratios in the immediate families of physicians,” Patel said.

General surgeon Maya Tulpule, president of the city chapter of Indian Medical Association said, “I will discuss the matter with IMA managing committee members to see whether we can take up such a survey here in Pune.”

It was an important study which reflected the mindset of the society of which doctors are a part, said senior psychiatrist Devendra Shirole, former national vice president of IMA. “However, a multi-centric study with a larger sample size is needed. We will discuss this at IMA’s national meeting soon,” he added.

Previous studies have also claimed that this son preference varies little with education or income and that selective abortion of girls is common in educated and affluent households, presumably because they can afford ultrasound and abortion services more than uneducated or poorer households.

 

 

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